January 12, 2018

Aristotle has committed a giant step backward

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Sri Aurobindo on the Rishi as Poet.

Dear Kashyap, Rajendra and others,

Kashyap,  you said in previous email [The only remaining thing, which admittedly is not part of theory of evolution is  to understand  how inorganic inert molecules gave rise to life.]

I was wondering of any of you have heard of the 2013 paper in Icarus by Makukov and shCherbak on the genetic code.  "The Wow! signal in the terrestrial genetic code". They argue very convincingly that the genetic code has been artificially designed the way it is in order to encode a message!  They claim to have found a pattern of exactly balancing nucleon numbers (in the amino acids coded for) across each of the code's well-known symmetries that always constitutes a multiple of 37. And in one of them when you divide the three totals by 37 you get 9, 16 and 25 (the squares of the sides of the 3-4-5 right angled triangle - a shape that would be familiar to mathematicians all across the universe). They make a very strong case for this because they have examined all the other potential variations of the code that nature could have used and no such patterns were found.  Their conclusion is that the genetic code has been artificially created (due to its highly durable nature) to encode a message from an advanced alien intelligence! I did look to see if the date of publication was the first of April.  But in actual fact the work seems to be getting a lot of positive mainstream publicity.  I read about it in a mathematics book published by New Scientist magazine which is a reasonably good secular science publication in the UK.

Although,  the authors suggest the engineers were aliens,  the 37 times table has wonderful symmetries of its own but only in the decimal number system.  Are we really to believe those aliens guessed that intelligent life on this planet would evolve to use such a system?  Hence I am more inclined to believe that it was a theistic God like the universewide consciousness that my theory of consciousness appears to predict. Such a being could know the future because he could have subsequently directed evolution to produce ten fingered brainy creatures.  
If that is the case then your worry about how life got started goes away. The important thing to my mind though is that the existence of such a being does not in the least bit make natural selection wrong or even redundant. Life forms have to be adapted to their various niches in order to survive,  so such a creator would need to work gradually over many many generations,  each time allowing the sieve of natural selection to determine what changes worked best. The only difference would be that not all the mutations would necessarily be random.  Such a being could try out mutations that worked before or elsewhere. Due to this memory effect you'd get a sort of exponential increase in complexity over time, which I think is what we do see. Yet it does not in the least bit allow us to excuse ourselves from the need to identify the selection pressures that led to the designlike attributes of our consciousness.  Each small step towards these features must have benefitted our ancestors or it would not have been retained.

I'd be interested to hear from anyone else who has come across that paper.  I couldn't see anything wrong with the line of argument. But then I knew very little about the genetic code before reading that paper so am no expert. I have yet to find any article debunking their claims.

All the best, 

C.  S.  Morrison - Author of THE BLIND MINDMAKER: Explaining Consciousness without Magic or Misrepresentation.

Dear Jo,

You may be right.  I don't presume to be able to tell in this case. And I do wish the authors would be explicit about how many alternative symmetries they examined that didn't give exact balances (after all the probability of hitting a multiple of 37 is just 1out of 37 - but remember the claims to improbability concern the exact balances not the nature of the balanced numbers). I made a rough estimate based on the standard deviation of the varying side chain masses for just one of their exact balances (I worked out how many different pairs of totals similar divisions of the code would be likely to produce) and got a probability of roughly 0.1 percent.  They also say the Rumer's bisection  - the symmetry associated with their exact balances - is itself highly improbable (which makes it interesting that the perfect balances are found there). They also claim to have tried many other possibilities and found no such balances (though I wish they would demonstrate this in the paper).

As far as being interested in such things is concerned, for me (as no doubt for Leibniz) coincidences are what science is about.  I would not criticise Leibniz for wondering if there is a scientific reason for the fortunate position of the moon at a time when life-forms capable of studying the solar corona and testing General Relativity have evolved on earth.  At the other extreme one could argue (reminiscent of Hume) that the patterns we call laws of nature are themselves just sets of lucky coincidences (the infinite multiverse cosmologies come to mind). Consciousness is used in humans to encode mainly sensory information so its designlike perfection with regard to that task is interesting (likewise with avocet beaks).

I believe in explaining an observed phenomenon in the way that is as similar as possible to how the most similar successfully-explained thing is explained. If that happens to be as a random coincidence then so be it. The question for me is merely what that most similar explained phenomenon is.

If the authors can use their patterns to make reliable predictions about other aspects of the genetic code, then the whole thing will get a lot more serious.  This may of course never happen. However,  the possible benefits of such a discovery are so great that it is definitely worth the risk looking for them and following up such claims.  That is of course why billions of dollars is spent each year hunting for earthlike exoplanets. Earthlikeness may have nothing to do with life but it is the best guess we have of where to find it.  Likewise patterns in the genetic code may have nothing to do with nonhuman intelligence, but they are in my opinion a good place to look for it.

Best wishes, 

The dominant scientific paradigm is still unaware that metaphysics and theology can be approached, at east according to *some* hypotheses, with the scientific method/attitude (which is modesty, no claim of truth, no ontological commitment, clear refutable theories (it is work demanding).

It took many trucks, hoists and cranes to install at IBM their first 5 MegaBytes hard drive, and now, you can put million of these MG in your pockets. All applications are universal programmed Chips, so yes, the computers are physical implementations of Universal Machine, provably so if you accept the theses (proved equivalent) by Church, Kleene, Post, Turing, etc.

That is what the universal machine/number/word likes to do the most: to transform themselves, with respect to other probable universal number. The nesting can be related with dreams inside dreams, but the dreams obeys the law of numbers, and limit of numbers. From inside, the nesting is truly infinite.

  But in contrast to a math duplicator,  the cwb   can't just materialize an imaginary  oxygen molecule out of the idealied benevolent number reservoir, but in the actual internal analog structural coding we are running,  we have to scavenge for an actual extra molecules so we can carry out the ~reaction(s) to completetion so that we get the water molecules involved in the internal structural coding.  

Only because you take for granted, perhaps, the idea that the fundamental reality is physical. I do not.

The physical is fundamental, but it is only the Clothes of God. The physical is, or should, only be a tool used by God to say “hello” to Itsef.

It is not the fundamentally “real” thing, which has admittedly slightly more “trivial”: the arithmetical reaiity, and, at some point, even only the semi-computable arithmetical reality.

But the key to understand is that such a correspondence should itself never been taken for granted, and digital mechanism is a type of religion: it acts some faith. At some point any theology takes the risk of blasphemy, directly or when misunderstood. Here, the mathematics of self-reference can be helpful.

Mechanism is the idea that our bodies are (natural) machine, which means they works through finite local interaction at some description level.

Then, accepting the Church-Turing thesis, it becomes a theorem that all computations are implemented by all computers, including in elementary arithmetic. 

Machines are finite objects, but they can’t avoid growing up and developing themselves through many histories. Then you have to take into account that the machine’s first person perspective is infinitely distributed on infinitely many computations, and “observably” so below their substitution level (which suggests that the substitution level is the quantum level, which is mainly an isolation notion, than a scale).

But for me, nothing is conceivably wilder than the arithmetical reality, up to the point of trying to explain how the apparent orders can emerge from the many-dreams realised in arithmetic.

You might confuse the mathematical theories and the mathematical reality. Since Gödel, we have good reason (even theorem assuming mechanism) to believe that the arithmetical reality is quite transcendent. I look for an explanation of the origin of the physical laws, which does not put consciousness under the rug, as the average Aristotelian materialist do. 
Usually Mechanism is advocated by materialist, but I try to explain this does not work. Then it is easier to explain how numbers can dream, and how some dreams can develop into stable sharable physical realities, but with no need of ontological stuff.

You just miss Gödel’s astounding achievement of the arithmetization of metamathematics. You are not alone, despite tuns of book, this is largely ignored, but it changes a lot the possible metaphysics/theology available when assuming Mechanism. The 19th century did have a reductionist conception of machine. Since Gödel and Turing, we know that the universal machine are terrible unknown. I did not see why you said the sentence above, and I was suggesting you might use a reductionist conception of machines.

If you limit my supply of oxygen I will die relatively to you. From my first person perspective I will survive in the computations where you don’t do that, or in any other consistent history close (in some sense related to the logic of self-reference).

It is the frightening aspect of mechanism: we can’t die. But theoretical computer science (intensional number theory) suggests the existence of jumps, if not, like I say above, much more sophisticated bardo. To leave the cycle of death and rebirth is not easy.

I mean I keep my mind open to the idea that our physical universal might have life form based on different constituents and set of laws, and doubly so with mechanism, where we are at light years to get something like our three dimensional or 24 dimensional physical theories. But physics, as ontological science, is refuted, from the mechanist perspective. But physics has not been invented for doing metaphysics, so that is rather normal.

I insist that my hypothesis is that “I” am a mechanism. (That is I survive with a machine as a body). Then I can show that this entails that both consciousness and matter are not mechanism. This comes from the first person indeterminacy: the act that if we are digital machine we are duplicable (at some right level of description), and we are indeterminate on all the computations going through our current local relative state. You need to study the seven steps of the “Universal Dovetailer Argument”, like in the sane04 paper. We are randomly selected on all equivalent computations (in arithmetic). 

When I was a young student, the term “consciousness” was a taboo word. I think that in occident, science has started with Pythagorus (-500) (including the serious theology … and also already its misuses and abuses) and has stopped with Damascius (+ 500). We are just in the Middle-Age. The Enlightenment Period has recovered the scientific attitude in all domains, except the fundamental one: theology, and the human science. Theology needs to come back at the academy of science, where we practice modesty through refutable theories. 

I would say that the flaw comes from making the 1p into an epiphenomenon when not putting it straight away under the rug. I think that Aristotle has committed a giant step backward. He did not understand Plato, and took granted the ontology of a physical universe. That has led us to variate form of materialism, which might be flawed or not, but we have to test this, and the incompatibility between Mechanism and Materialism leads us to such tests (and at first sight it favour mechanism on materialism).

Kind regards,


It is the idea behind Gödel’s theorem, but once made mathematically precise it only shows that we cannot use reason to guarantie truth. We can only hope to be consistent and sound. It means that proof/belief should not be systematically associated with consistency and soundness. It is part of what I called machine’s metaphysics or theology. It is very important in machine theology, where invoking truth isa king to blasphemy. We have to stay modest. Intelligence is only the courage to try theories, and to admit we *might be* wrong.


Dear Kashyap/Roman:

Consciousness is fundamentally a universal not biological phenomenon. Any local model  of biologically brain-induced consciousness is bound to be incomplete and bound to fail the same way universally as the standard cosmology model failing to predict 96% (dark energy/dark matter) of the universe.

A fundamental model of consciousness must be built as a wholesome universe model wherein the dark energy/dark matter problems are fully resolved withot any inconsistencies and paradoxes.

The above is based on my personal experice with the Universal Relativity Model integratng the missing fundamental physics of spontaneous decay into a cosmology model depicting a wholesome continuum of matter/mind/consciousness. Such model is vindicated by empirical observations of the universe and it also provides testable and falsifiable predictions for future vindication.

A local brain-induced consciousness model is like the model of a well trying to depict the ocean or model of a cloud trying to depict the vast space of the universe. It is also like showing candle to the sun.

Best Regards

Dear Ram:
I agree with your statement: “…QM-nonlocality and FTL-IT are controversial and unclear."

The above inconsistencies and controversies are artefacts of the missing physics in current quantum theories that Einstein also pointed out. The following is a possible Special Relativity based explanation to resolve the dilemma:

Physical information constitutes non-zero mass-energy. Hence, a photon of light carrying and transferring information has a non-zero mass and cannot travel at the speed of light. Its V is very slightly less than C, but so close to C that difference from C is practically non-measurable or discernible via normal measurements. Hence, all information is transferred at V

There exist an uncountable number of zero-mass photons or Zero-point energy in V=C state of fully dilated space-time (eternal). However, this energy is unmeasurable as it exists in zero space-time state. We, human observers, and our senses or instruments can only perceive/measure non-zero mass photons carrying information from stars and galaxies completely missing on the zero point energy or photons.

Hence, your statement –“…. Since there is a transfer of physical information at v<=c, it is local at v=c as well. Physical information is transferred from sun to earth by light at v=c, but it takes time.” is in violation of special relativity as no information (non-zero mass can be physically transferred at V=C. We, human beings assume that sunlight photons have zero mass and V=C for practical purposes as we are unable to measure a velocity very very slightly less than but terriibly close to the speed of light. V=C assumption for sunlight photon is acceptable only as a FAPP (for all practical purposes) principle but theoretically (SR) incorrect. V>C (FTL-IT) is physical impossible since there is no space-time at or beyond V=C. Information can only exist and be transferred at V

A philosophical interpretation of V=C could be Cosmic Consciousness or eternal existence in the absolute Zero-point state that is purely kinetic, everywhere and all the time but unmeasurable in the implicate state (this is not far from common Brahma or God definition).

Best Regards

Established beliefs in science are as difficult to overcome as in religion. But one can always try. I am working on a paper below and send it to the group soon when ready:

“What is Fundamental” – Missing Physics of Anti-gravity
Avtar Singh, Sc. D.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Alumni
Center for Horizons Research,

A fundamental concept or law represents the underlying foundation on which the next level or a comprehensive physical theory is built upon and without which a coherent and consistent description of empirical observations at all scales is impossible. The widely-accepted current mainstream theories – General Relativity (GR), Quantum Field Theory (QFT), Maxwell’s Theory, and Standard Big Bang Model (BBM), although vindicated by multiple worldly experiments, are known to exhibit inconsistencies and paradoxical results at universal scale pointing to possible missing fundamental physics. “What is fundamental” is exemplified in this paper via identifying a potential missing fundamental phenomenon of anti-gravity or spontaneous mass-energy conversion leading to spontaneous expansion as evidenced in the observed accelerated expansion of the universe. Relativistic formulations of this fundamental phenomenon provide a new photon dynamics model that eliminates inconsistencies in the current photon model of Maxwell’s theory. Integrating gravity into this model further provides a fundamental universe model that is shown to predict the observed universe behavior and resolves the current paradoxes (black hole singularity, dark energy, dark matter, inflation). It also explains the apparent weirdness of the inner workings of quantum mechanics (quantum gravity, parallel universes, observer’s paradox, and nonlocality) eliminating known inconsistencies of current theories. The model also provides testable predictions for falsification via future observations. The proposed model provides a new fundamental universal understanding of key concepts of physics, cosmology, and universal reality.

 Jan 10, 2018

Dear Vinodji,

Experimentally you can run a beam of incident particles like electrons, photons or whatever onto a target consisting of particles you want to do experiment on such as atoms, molecules etc. Technically this is called scattering. Sometime two beams are made to run into each other. The outgoing particles will be entangled  to a certain extent. But more commonly, photons are passed  through crystals or even an ordinary plate called beam splitter to produce two beams which are entangled. Entanglement is produced by the usual quantum mechanical forces, expressed as Hamiltonian or Lagrangian.  These are spin dependent forces. The particles should be within range of interaction, not outside. This is different for each case.

The interesting thing is that what started as a mostly philosophical inquiry by Einstein about reality has become a big field of experimental physics! Entanglement is more common than we used to think. It may very well be  that particles run into each other naturally and get entangled. It is very likely that nature uses entanglement at many places. Stay tuned!

Best Regards.


Hi Roman,

Interesting question. I will look into it. Seems to me that not much work has been done in entanglement in brain and in general in fluid systems. But if by scattering photons and electrons (most likely bound in atoms) off each other, one can produce entangled pairs, these particles surely get entangled when they run into each other because of fluid motion in the body or electrodynamic movements. At any rate this may be worth looking into. I understand Penrose and Hameroff use entanglement and subsequent collapse of wave function to suggest consciousness experience. Perhaps in your model of hydronic ions , similar thing can happen.

It is very interesting to note that what started out as a mostly philosophical inquiry on reality by Einstein has become a big experimental field in physics! Now we know that entanglement is more common than we used to think. It is quite likely that nature is using this phenomenon for some purpose.

Best Regards.


Dear Vinod/Kasyap:
The observed photon correlation and entanglement are explained by SR via space-time dilation at V close to C. The two apparently miles apart photons experience dilated space to zero hence remain correlated and appear entangled acting as the ONE and same photon.

Please also see my previous post - Speed V is ALWAYS < C; Even Photon of light moves at V


Will to Live or No-Will to Live? The Points of Convergence of the Thoughts of Schopenhauer, Wittgenstein, and Aurobindo on Living a Meaningful Life
KC Pandey - Schopenhauer on Self, World and Morality, 2017
… VI. Sri Aurobindo. As an Advaitin, Aurobindo believes in the Universal Will as well as individualwill … For Sri Aurobindo, the real problem of living a meaningless life does not lie outside in theworld. The problem lies within our own being at the individual level …

The Quintessence of the Upanishadic Wisdom and the Solace of Schopenhauer's Life
KM Pathak - Schopenhauer on Self, World and Morality, 2017
… My Indian reminiscences (A. King, Trans.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services [First publishedLondon, 1893].Google Scholar. Isha Upanishad (Sri Aurobindo Ashram) … Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.Google Scholar. Kena Upanishad (Sri Aurobindo Ashram) …

Introducing Schopenhauer's Philosophy of the World, Self and Morality in the Light of Vedantic and Non-Vedantic Wisdom
A Barua - Schopenhauer on Self, World and Morality, 2017
… Pandey argues that Schopenhauer's concept of the Will as 'thing-in-itself' and Will as 'thephenomenal appearance' can be seen from the perspective of Wittgenstein's 'Showable andSayable' distinction and Sri Aurobindo's distinction between 'Universal Will' and 'individual will' …

Schopenhauer on Self, World and Morality
A Barua
… the way Schopenhauer's thought stands to sources that inspired and moved the developmentof his thought, the relations of Schopenhauer to important figures as such as Abhinavagupta,Gaudapada, Bhartṛhari, Sankara, Rabindranath Tagore, Sri Aurobindo, KE Neumann …

December 20, 2017

There is no evidence for any ontology

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On 19 Dec 2017, at 16:19, 'Syamala Hari' via Sadhu-Sanga Under the holy association of Spd. B.M. Puri Maharaja, Ph.D. wrote:

High Whit,
Well, one can use the word 'meaning' with the meaning you suggested also. I did not mean it the way you suggested. While working with computers/robots, we frequently use the phrases: "It knows", "it understands", etc.  There is a difference between a human being's knowing and understanding and a robot's "knowing" and "understanding" is it not?  In fact, if you tell your dog to fetch a ball, the dog understands what you said and fetches the ball. The robot will also do the same and you may say the robot "understands" your instruction but its "understanding" is certainly different from a human being's or even the dog's "understanding" of your instruction. 

How do you know that?

I think you can say that if the robot is an automata. In that case, it is controlable, always defined, etc. But that intuition can be shown not available for a computer or any universal machine (in arithmetic). After Turing)Gödel's work, we know that we know about nothing on what the universal machine are capable and not capable.

On the contrary, we know that such machine have a rich theology, and that such a theology contains, in its sharable probable parts,  the whole of(public) physics, making that theory testable. And the test done up to now, confirms Mechanism (and thus suggests that weak materialism, physicalism, etc. are wrong).

In the case of the robot, the "turn right" instruction is a material process: giving it energy or momentum to initiate action followed by action according to instructions already coded into its hardware. Turnig right or fetching the ball   is a completely material process in which the robot ha no conscious experience of anything. The content of a conscious experience or what a conscious being is aware of in an experience is what I called meaning in my post. We have different experiences.  Seeing an apple and eating it.  What we aware of in the two experiences is what I call the meanings of those actions, the actions themselves being material processes. This meaning is NOT matter or the material process which exist in both the human being (or dog) and in the robot.

Locally. But eventually, "matter" is only a meaningfull idea in the mind of the machine or the numbers. the solution of the mind-body problem already provided by the machine in arithmetic, is that "matter" does not exist, like in Plotinus and other rational mystic. 

More simply, the meaning of a word is not the same as the word, or the sound we make when uttering the word because the same meaning can be conveyed by different words in different languages. 

OK. Like a mind can be conveyed by different bodies or different representations in arithmetic.

Pribram found an accurate description in terms of Gabor functions, of  the brain's material/physical memory which stores our experiences.  Then he says that the Gabor function describes both the brain's physical memory and the psychological content also.  What I say is that the gabor function is like a comuter's  bit or qubit and different from the concept (psychological) concept. So his theory still does not solve the hard problem.

Even without mechanism, I think it is better when we do science, especially in metaphysics, to not invoke metaphysical notion, like primairy matter,  in an explanation. 

Many people confuse the evidence for a physical reality with evidence for physicalism or weak-materialism (the belief in primitive matter), but as the antic dream argument already has refuted, there is no evidence for any ontology (except personal consciousness), and with mechanism, it becomes invalid to assume anything more than numbers or similar inductive structures and laws.

Mechanism solves the hard problem of consciousness, in the sense that it explains why any universal machine introspecting itself get aware of something non-doubtable, true, and not justifiable rationally, concerning them. The machine already knows that they have a soul, and that the soul is not a machine. The hard problem is reduced in explaining physics from machine self-reference. They have a theology which includes physics, and so is testable, and it works until now.




[Spontaneous (self-induced)motion in the universe is an objective physical evidence of universal consciousness. A dead or unconscious universe would have no motion or change (time). Physics of consciousness is governed by the physical laws at cosmic scale]

Philosophy now comes to us in one form: the peer-reviewed article, published (preferably in English) in an academic journal. No wonder philosophy has become so irrelevant

Heidegger's Fourfold is well-known, but a more foundational ontological breakthrough has been achieved by Sri Aurobindo through his delineation of fourfold Vedic deities addressed as Varuna, Aryaman, Mitra, and Bhaga as principal powers and cosmic players.

Perhaps, quite the contrary, Sir? Hegel didn't understand India, falsifying our social reality with secondary, even tertiary, textual knowledge? It's that narrative that needs to be challenged with better self-understanding backed by better histories.

[comparison with Hegel can throw new light on understanding social and economic inequalities in India/intellectuals and activists challenging entrenched casteism and the upsurge of Hindu fundamentalism in India will be eternally grateful for Hegel’s India]

[Pribram shares interactions he has had with luminaries including David Bohm, Francis Crick, John Eccles, Dennis Gabor, Hubel and Wiesel, Wolfgang Kohler, Karl Lashley, Aleksandr Romanovitch Luria, Ilya Prigogine, B. F. Skinner, Eugene Sokolov, and others]

History of ideas, be it Hegel or Bergson, shows a struggle or speculative uncertainty while The Mother & Sri Aurobindo have the advantage of safely relating to the Veda and Upanishads besides Lurianic Kabbalah (Esoterica-Magick-7, 1996 by M. Alan Kazlev).

[The author has very ably succeeded in propounding that the two traditions have achieved a new height and dimensions in the philosophies of Sri Aurobindo and Hegel]
Absolutism East West Comparative Study Sri Aurobindo Hegel - Vijai Kant Dubey via @amazonIN

December 14, 2017

Why and how Puruṣa can experience but not Prakṛti?

Chapter 2 Antinomies of Pure Sexuation
pp. 51-86
The properly philosophical outcome of chapter 1 is that everything turns around the passage from Kant to Hegel. In the predominant perception, Kant is supposed to openly admit the failure of general ontology which aims at grasping the Whole of reality: when our mind tries to do this, it inevitably gets involved in antinomies; Hegel then closes this gap, reinterpreting antinomies as contradictions whose dialectical movement enables us to grasp the Whole of reality, i.e., the return to precritical general ontology.... But what if the actual situation is quite different? True, Kant admits antinomies, but...

Chapter 3 Toward a Unified Theory of Four Discourses and Sexual Difference
pp. 87-110
One of the crucial differences between psychoanalysis and philosophy concerns the status of sexual difference: for philosophy, the subject is not inherently sexualized, sexualization occurs only at the contingent, empirical level; whereas psychoanalysis promulgates sexuation into a kind of formal, a priori condition of the very emergence of the subject. (It is homologous with the notion of desire: in Kant’s philosophy, the faculty of desire is “pathological,” dependent on contingent objects, so there can be no “pure faculty of desiring,” no “critique of pure desire,” while for Lacan, psychoanalysis precisely is a kind of “critique of pure desire.” In other words, desire does have a non-pathological...

From what I understand, he doesn't even think he has done any real or original philosophy at this point and hates most of his own work.
Feel Philosophy: [So there could be a little bit of mental aspect (most likely hidden to us) in the fundamental particles.]

Development is dependent on science and a slight wrong direction can lead to disaster. So diligence is crucial. Evolution is not linear and hence predicting its course is hazardous. Vedic ontology unveiled by Sri Aurobindo seeks to harmonise the two but beware of wishful thinking

Sri Aurobindo himself admitted that events didn't take place the way he would have liked which means the Evolutionary purpose is shrouded in mystery. Instead of suffering from victimhood, it's advantageous to take lessons from myriad cultural invasions India has harboured so far.

Reimagining and Refashioning Integral Management - Tusar Nath Mohapatra, Savitri Era Learning Forum (SELF) Ghaziabad

[PDF] Sri Aurobindo's Views on Heraclitus' Philosophy: A Synthesis

K Kunkolienker -
60 days ago - Abstract—This paper appreciates the stimulating and thought-provoking synthesis of Heraclitus' philosophy offered by Sri Aurobindo. The deep philosophical insights of Heraclitus expressed in aphoristic and cryptic form inspired him and supported

Comparative Literature in India in the Twenty-first Century

AK Singh - The English Paradigm in India, 2017 - Springer
86 days ago -  … The paper looks at the writers from Indian subcontinent such as Gurudev Tagore, Sri Aurobindo and many poets and authors such as Umashankar Joshi in Gujarati, Shamsher Bahadur Singh in Hindi and Faiz Ahmed 'Faiz' in Urdu who provide the models for such a …

The “The Life Divine''as it Begins: An essential understanding of the first chapter of Life Divine–“The Human Aspiration”

A Vaidya -
155 days ago - Here in in this chapter Sri Aurobindo one of the most modern prolific philosophers of Renaissance India has … Keywords Sri Aurobindo HUman Aspiration Life Divine. Categories Metaphilosophy. (categorize this paper). PhilPapers/Archive ID VAITTL. Revision history …

[PDF] Aurobindonian Rhetoric and the Problem of Evaluation

D Goswami -
223 days ago -  … Article History: Submitted-06/04/2017, Revised-25/04/2017, Accepted-26/04/2017, Published-30/04/2017. Abstract: During the post-independence era, Indian poets writing in English showed serious issues with Sri Aurobindo's spiritual poetry; particularly its language …


D Johnston -
247 days ago - ABSTRACT In this essay I trace the evolution of consciousness from the time of origins and the archaic structure of consciousness, through the magic structure, the mythical structure and the mental structure up to the present incipient integral culture of


D Johnston -
251 days ago - This essay is about Jung's Gnostic creation myth, which he wrote in 1916 as an important part of his encounter with the unconscious. He called it the Seven Sermons to the Dead, and attributed its writing to Philemon, a winged being he encountered in dreams

[DOC] The Spiritual Nationalism & Human Unity: approach taken by Sri Aurobindo in Politics

D Banerjee -
260 days ago - Abstract: Sri Aurobindo's theory of Politics is quite extraordinary than other contemporary politicians of India. It also has several parts like Swaraj, boycott, resistance, national education as necessary ingredient of Indian political agitation started from 1905.

[PDF] Sri Aurobindo's Approach to Tantra

P Nandakumar -
270 days ago - Hatha yoga and raja yoga apart, Sri Aurobindo gives a very detailed treatment of jnana, karma and bhakti yoga in his book. While each pathway can be taken to achieve realisation when pursued with single-minded sincerity, Sri Aurobindo wonders whether

Reception Configurations: The Case of European Epic in India

BD Schildgen - Reading the Past Across Space and Time, 2016 - Springer
285 days ago -  … Aurobindo Ghose. Aurobindo Ghose is considered among the greatest Indian philosophers of the twentieth century … Aurobindo and Savitri. Savitri—the name means Light—is a character from the Mahabharata . Like some characters in the Commedia , she is …

[BOOK] The Integral Philosophy of Aurobindo: Hermeneutics and the Study of Religion

B Prince - 2017 -
326 days ago - Sri Aurobindo was an Indian nationalist, philosopher, yogi, guru, and poet. This book is an enquiry into the integral philosophy of Aurobindo and its contemporary relevance. It offers a reading of Aurobindo's key texts by bringing them into conversation with

BOOK] Literary and Cultural Readings of Goddess Spirituality: The Red Shadow of the Mother

A Mukhopadhyay - 2016 -
364 days ago -  … 33 The Confluence of Mothers in Sri Aurobindo's Savitri: Exploring the Divergence between Aufhebung and “Integration” from the Perspective of Goddess Spirituality Chapter Five …

I added a video to a @YouTube playlist Talk by Prof Deepti Malhotra || Sri Aurobindo Ashram - Delhi Branch

Vimal: As per Wikipedia (as of 13 Dec. 2017 with minor modification), “The Universe is all of space and time (spacetime) and its contents,[12] which includes planets, moons, stars, galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space and all matter and energy.[13][14] While the size of the entire Universe is still unknown,[6] it is possible to measure the observable universe. Halpern and Tomasello calculated the observable universe using data from European Space Agency's Planck satellite, estimating it to be 90.68 billion light-years across, 0.7% smaller than previously thought.[15]  […] The Universe can be defined as everything that exists, everything that has existed, and everything that will exist.[22][23][24] According to our current understanding, the Universe consists of spacetime, forms of energy (including electromagnetic radiation and matter), and the physical lawsthat relate them. The Universe encompasses all of life, all of history, and some philosophers and scientists suggest that it even encompasses ideas such as mathematics and logic.[25][26][27]”

The eDAM’s definition of universe is the same as science defines plus subtle and subtlest UF levels. The UF is within our universe, there is nothing beyond it.   

Vimal: … In addition, in the eDAM, ‘Consciousness’ is the Universal Potential Consciousness (UPC) that is the 1pp-mental aspect of the unmanifested state of the information in the Unified field (UF) and its inseparable physical aspect is Physical Unified Field (PUF).

Vimal: The aspects of the unmanifested state of information in the UF are latent, so God (manifested consciousness) is not necessary. It is the manifestation processes such as condensation process and the relevant laws are necessary, which are inherently embedded in UF by definition.  It should be noted that the eDAM follows scientific bottom-up approach and UF is proposed in the same sense. Materialists, such as Poznanski, reject idealism based top-down approach on the name of Voodoo-ism. Therefore, to avoid such type critique, the proposal of self-referral and self-awareness attributes of the UF still need further justifications and why they would be mandatory.

Vimal: What is the structure inside the Puruṣa of Sāṅkhya and why and how He can experience (but not Prakṛti) and what is the precise mechanism? Are they not assumptions? In the eDAM, the ontology of UF, UPC, and PUF is the ontology of information in the UPC and PUF of UF. Information is the same in both UPC and PUF. What is information inside UF? I guess, all enormous processes and all possible laws. This information must be the same for both UPC and PUF; it is just looking from which perspective we like to view it; for the 1pp we can assume what we might experience. Since we are not UPC so there is no way to understand what the experiences UPC really might have. However, we can imagine by extrapolating. However, do not forget that UPC is related to the unmanifested state, so both UPC and PUF are latent for us. The source of information is UF, which is the same for both UPC and PUF.

Vimal: The initial source of all information is UF. You do not seem to understand the meanings of the “latent”, “information in both aspects” “perspective of viewing” and so on because you raise illogical queries. The definition of universe is given above, which is levels 1-3 (gross, subtle, and subtlest). There is nothing outside of the eDAM’s Universe. Since you and your core are from Sāṅkhya, you see physical and mental aspects separable and you think they have different ontology. No, in the eDAM, the ontology of both aspects is the same as the ontology of related information.

Vimal: Yes, it is mandatory to provide scientific two-way designed experiments (both positive and negative should be necessary, esp. if you want NIH grant) in theoretical modeling to have any value. If negative results are obtained, then the framework will be rejected. The positive results need further testing. Science can only reject hypotheses, it cannot prove them. We both are theorists and we must provide such designed experiment; you may like to look at Section 3.2 of (Vimal, 2015b) and let me know if you suggest how to improve it with some justifications. Vinod ji claims that it only shows correlation, not inseparability but does not provide any justification and how to improve it. I think that it provides 1-1 correlation which is close to inseparability but I am looking for a design that can clearly show the inseparability and reject the separability of Vinod’s framework (non-interactive dualism, SAnkhya). Once aspects are separable, then mind can exist without brain, such as ghosts; hope you never encountered ghosts in your life, but many people claim they have; watch “fear files” 1 or 2 episodes, just to have a feeling; they are available in YouTube or Google.

Kind regards,
Rām Lakhan Pāndey Vimal, Ph.D.
Amarāvati-Hīrāmaṇi Professor (Research), Vision Research Institute, Physics, Neuroscience, & Consciousness Research Dept.
25 Rita Street, Lowell, MA 01854 USA Ph: +1 978 954 7522; eFAX: +1 440 388 7907
To view this discussion on the web visit

December 11, 2017

Brain is only halfway along in evolution

My idea is very simple. The organisms do not exchange information -- they exchange physical signals. A physical signal carries nothing but itself. It is the function of consciousness to process these physical signals (converted into electric impulses by sense organs) and to transform them into information for the bearer of consciousness. 
In so doing, for there to be new information, consciousness does not only process the new physical (sensory) signals, but also re-processes the formerly memorized elements of experience. In result, every new element of experience (every new information) consists of what we see (hear, etc.) plus what we expect to see (to hear, etc.). 
If we want to convey information, our consciousness performs the reversed act*, namely, it transforms some mental pattern (a thought or idea) into physical signals -- the electrical impulses sent to the muscles. In result, we have various activities like "typing on a keyboard", or "raising hand", or "producing air vibrations using larynx", etc. So, we produce the physical signals which exist in the form of e-m radiation, air vibrations, etc. In case the other person's consciousness is able to transform the produced by us physical signals into new information for that person, it means that communication between us has taken place. 
*Note: we have to apply a very complex system of models to formalize the mechanisms of matter-mind and mind-matter transformations.
[Whit Blauvelt] wrote: In this sense, saying "information is consciousness" is as wrong as saying "meat is life." The living part is precisely what's not there in mere meat, or mere "information."
[S.P.] I do not say that "information is consciousness". I say that information is a product of consciousness. I say that if there is "information", it is always subject-dependent. I say that what is informative for me may not be informative for others, which indicates that information does not exist objectively or "embedded" out there. 
I say that for there to be life, the complex system{organism} must be able not only to consume food and to take part in energetic interactions, but also to construct a metal representation of the outer world it lives in. These three are the possible ways in which the entropy of the complex system{organism} can be kept on a sufficiently low level by the very organism -- this is what I mean by "self-organization".
I do not understand your "meat-hunting" analogy (or metaphor). Why "The animal, alive, is seen as "meat."" ? What this has to do with making a difference between information and physical signal?
Serge Patlavskiy

"Sadhu-Sanga Under the holy association of Spd. B.M. Puri Maharaja, Ph.D." group. To view this discussion on the web visit

Picture a fetus pondering what the sex life of its parents might be like. In actuality, the fetus does have a solid mammal brain after a certain stage, a brain which is sometimes very active mentally -- sometimes usefully, sometimes spinning wheels in a useless way. But probably the design is solid enough that it would not waste SO much time and energy.... and the fetus brain does seem to learn things like hidden nodes which help it recognize phonemes in the language spoken near it. But our present brains are clearly not so well-designed in regards to not wasting time on debates full of conviction about stuff less than 0.1 femtometers or more than 10 billion years or light years; that's what happens when a brain is only halfway along in evolution between one quantum level of consciousness and the next. (NOT about "quantum theory" here...)

As for "physical"... it is curious how folks may intensely say they do not believe in the physical, or the material, or the mechanistic, or the natural, while somehow making it clear that they believe those words actually mean something very definite, definite and agreed enough to be worthy of very hard and crisp opinions. 

Does "physical" mean "stuff like what physicists study?" Well, back when Maxwell's Laws caught on, the folk wisdom was ever so upset about how physical they WEREN'T. More and more, we understand that they were just a set of differential equations, operating over "fields" which were just functions of space-time. People complained "but what do these functions REPRESENT? What is the physical MEDIUM which these waves are moving through?" Answer: no such thing. Even if the electromagnetic field WERE to be represented in a new ultimate theory of physics (say, a lattice model), that model itself would be just another mathematical model, no more "physical" than the first. Our understanding is INHERENTLY a kind of infinite regress, and we need to get used to that. Getting used to that is a part of sanity or zhengqi, the next stage for the vast bulk of us in any authentic mental development, mundane OR esoteric. Overuse of words like "material (as an adjective)", or "physical" tends to be just a red flag that one is in the pre-Maxwell era of thinking. As for "natural"... you don't hear Dean Radin saying he is exploring the supernatural! For excellent reason!

My problem with the sentence you quote above is, above all, extreme ambiguity. Taken one way, it can be made to be true. Taken another way, it contradicts not only Einstein but the monist traditions of East and West, and in a practical sense sanity itself. We all fall into a bit of ambiguity from time to time, especially in informal discussions with people we trust, but it is a waste of energy to debate over what is so completely ill-defined. 

Paul Werbos 

Dear Vinod ji and Roman,

I agree with no “explanatory gap” (e-gap) as a third criterion; other two are subjective and objective evidence. However, how do we decide it is a real e-gap if the author of the framework claims there is none, but an opponent maintains that the e-gap remains?

(Boyer, 2018).Ch.5 and others propose 3 types of information:

1. Physical Shannon type information such as “the quantum information field that generates relativistic spacetime”,

2. Biological “‘shaping information,’ referring to how biophysical structures and functions are guided, by DNA for example” and

3. Psychological information, which “includes purpose and intention in terms of the exchange of semantic meaning between conscious senders and receivers—as for example in language.” (Boyer, 2018).

In the eDAM, a state of the information in an entity has dual-aspect and both aspects (mental and physical) have the same information, except its form may be different and it appears different depending on the perspective of viewing it. Therefore, the ontology of both aspects is the ontology of this common information.

The mental aspect of a state of the information in an inert entity appears “latent” to us (as a 3rd person) because it, like us, is also made of related elementary particles. A dual-aspect panpsychist may argue that the mental aspect from the point of view (1pp) of the inert entity may be known to the inert entity but it is unknown to us. The opponents will clearly reject it. It should be noted that it is also a manifestation of the primal entity (Brahman) and certainly has a specific function that may be useful to us and hence we should respect it and do not look at it in a degraded manner. 
Kind regards, Rām

Vimal: The dual-aspect monism framework is close to an ancient views: (a) Kashmir Shaivism (860–925 AD) with Shiva as mental aspect and Shakti as physical aspect and (b) cit-acit Viśiṣṭādvaita (Ramānujāchārya: 1017-1137 AD: cit as mental and acit as physical aspect (i.e., adjectives/aspects of Brahman), see (Vimal, 2012c) and (Radhakrishnan, 1960)). The latter is close to Āstika Dvi-Pakṣa Advaita (theist version of the eDAM), which has been verified by an expert Padmabhushan Jagadguru Rambhadracharya (PhD, DLitt) of Chitrakut (India) (personal meeting on 23rd Dec 2011 night in Chitrakoot Ashram); for detail see Section 4.4.2 of (Vimal, 2012c).  There are empirical evidences for conscious state that are unable to reject eDAM. For a critical test, experiments are proposed in Section 3.2 of (Vimal, 2015f) to reject it. The eDAM is based on the bottom-up approach: from the unmanifested UF (Brahman) of transcendent/subtlest level to the manifested causal and astral bodies of subtle level to the manifested physical bodies of gross level to the manifested Samādhi state where we acquire godly virtues such as compassion, humility, and love for all, and experience bliss and paranormal phenomena. However, further research is needed, especially the eDAM in non-living systems. The eDAM is the least problematic if you can understand it from its own point of view. Therefore, it is worth pursuing it and commenting it to make it better.

Vimal: In the eDAM, the physical aspect of a state of the information in a non-living entity (physical body) is manifested, but its inseparable mental aspect is latent in the gross level. The condensation/congealing process used in idealism and/or Sāṅkhya is unclear how that can be possible. In the eDAM, the processes are the inter-dependently co-origination and co-evolution of both aspects. 
Kind regards, Rām
Rām Lakhan Pāndey Vimal, Ph.D.

The Complete Works of Sri Aurobindo
No insecurity at all; you are free to express yourself. India's Rebirth, a compilation, has misguided many Indians about Sri Aurobindo's views.

Marketime (since 2005): Feminism is a proper academic subject @sanjukta #Auroville #SriAurobindo #FiveDreams

Savitri Era (since 2005): Sri Aurobindo is opposed to all dominant narratives #SriAurobindo #FiveDreams

Savitri Era Learning Forum (SELF - since 2005): Neo-Vedantic Knowledge project of Sri Aurobindo #SriAurobindo #FiveDreams

NarendranathIndia, to Muktakashi Sengupta and was Turuni born on Charan. 23 December He married 1889, Kamala at Faridpur in 1916 in and Bengal, had

N Sengupta - Eminent Indian Psychologists: 100 years of …, 2017 -
8 days ago -  … There he had the privilege of studying English under the great revolutionary and highly educated philosopher Sri Aurobindo (founder of the ashram in Pondicherry) and studied Pali under Sri Goswami, the great scholar of the language …

Original Minds: Sri Aurobindo–Integral Scientist

W Stinson - Cadmus, 2017 -
9 days ago - Abstract [...] even a cursory look at science from Pythagoras through Galileo reveals a completely different set of ethical rules for the conduct of scientific investigation that exist today. New principles of accomplishment that emerge from this" radical" shift in

[PDF] Building an Intuitive Mentality: The Neo-Vedantic Knowledge Project of Sri Aurobindo

D Banerji - 2017 -
16 days ago - Abstract Post-Enlightenment philosophy, which is largely creative of and dominates the modern consciousness, has defined humanism in terms of rationality and its control over the irrational. This has led to our technological age but has also spawned

Indian Philosophers

A Aklujkar, DE Cooper, P Harvey, JL Garfield… - A Companion to the … - Wiley Online Library
22 days ago -  … Mahāvīra; Nāgārjuna; Padmapāda; Patañjali; Radhakrishnan; Rāmānuja; Śaṅkara; Sri Aurobindo; Śrīharṣa; Sureśvara; Swami Vivekananda; Vācaspati Miśra; Vasubandhu; Vidyāraṇya. Summary. As is the case with most pre …

[PDF] Physical Education by Sri Aurobindo

SK Mishra - EDU WORLD -
25 days ago - ABSTRACT On the subject of physical education, it must be mentioned that the physical is our base, and even the highest spiritual values are to be expressed through the life that is embodied here. Sariram adyam khalu dharmasadhanam, says the old Sanskrit

[PDF] Sri Aurobindo and Integral Yoga

R Subramony - 2016 -
25 days ago - ABSTRACT At Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo devoted himself exclusively to Yoga Glimpses of the goal of his yoga are there in his writings in the Kamayogin, especially in his renderings of the Isha and Kena Upanishads. Sri Aurobindo believed that man is an

[BOOK] Indian Philosophy and Meditation: Perspectives on Consciousness

R Banerjee, A Chatterjee - 2017 -
29 days ago -  … distinct trends of Indian thought, viz., a dualistic mode of understanding and realizing consciousness in Hindu Sāńkhya, an interactive mode in early Buddhist Abhidhamma, and the evolutionary transformational mode in the teachings of the twentieth-century sage Sri …

Education for a New Age

DP Kumar - Handbook of Research on Examining Global …, 2017 -
40 days ago -  … It is a spiritual essential change of consciousness, not the surface manipulation which is the method of Mind and Reason, that can alone make Life other than it now is and rescue it out of its present distressed and ambiguous figure.-SriAurobindo (Ghose, 1992 …


44 days ago - ABSTRACT Sri Aurobindo was the first Indian leader to advocate publically India'scomplete independence “PurnaSwaraj”. As a national prophet he has explored the nature of freedom very intensely and fervently. He has explained it as 'the longing to be free

Some Thoughts Regarding an Integral Ecology

J Ryan - 2017 -
44 days ago -  … In this talk, Professor Ryan will offer some reflections on how non-dual thought, as seen from the lens of Sri Aurobindo, Mother and other non-dualist philosophies like Hindu Tantrism, can offer a way to heal the rift between humans and the "others" on this planet and …

The Art of Being: Living and Working in Today's World as a Conscious Manifestation of the Divine

T Nordquist - 2017 -
44 days ago - Our world is experiencing the birth pangs of an evolving consciousness described and manifested by Sri Aurobindo and the Mother … Description. Our world is experiencing the birth pangs of an evolving consciousness described and manifested by Sri Aurobindo and …

Is a New Consciousness Emerging? Reflections on the Thought of Ibn'Arabi and the Impact of an Integral Perspective

N Yiangou - World Futures, 2017 - Taylor & Francis
45 days ago -  … This article reviews some of the ideas of thinkers such as Ken Wilber, Jean Gebser, Michael Murphy, Teilhard de Chardin, and Sri Aurobindo, and suggests further ways of advancing integral thought by reviewing the work of one of the greatest early integral thinkers …

[PDF] Orientalism: A Perspective

C Gupta -
45 days ago -  … In the third part of this paper, I discuss Peter Heehs, six different styles of Orientalist discourse about India, along with Sri Aurobindo national Orientalist in order to show that Indocentrism culture and Eurocentrism culture both needs one another …

[PDF] The Giant Dance of Shiva

S Bidwaikar -
47 days ago -  … the armoured Night.1 hese lines from Sri Aurobindo's epic poem Savitri at once bring forth the vi- sion of Nataraja, the cosmic dance of Lord Shiva as depicted in the bronze statues in South India. These statues present themselves …

PDF] Sri Aurobindo's Views on Heraclitus' Philosophy: A Synthesis

K Kunkolienker -
57 days ago - Abstract—This paper appreciates the stimulating and thought-provoking synthesis of Heraclitus' philosophy offered by Sri Aurobindo. The deep philosophical insights of Heraclitus expressed in aphoristic and cryptic form inspired him and supported

Comparative Literature in India in the Twenty-first Century

AK Singh - The English Paradigm in India, 2017 - Springer
83 days ago -  … The paper looks at the writers from Indian subcontinent such as Gurudev Tagore, Sri Aurobindo and many poets and authors such as Umashankar Joshi in Gujarati, Shamsher Bahadur Singh in Hindi and Faiz Ahmed 'Faiz' in Urdu who provide the models for such a …

Role of Philosophy of Education in India

K Srivastava - Tattva-Journal of Philosophy, 2017 -
83 days ago -  … Rabindranath Tagore, Sri Aurobindo and Swami Vivekananda … Keywords: Indian Educational Philosophy, Mahatma Gandhi, Rabindranath Tagore, SriAurobindo, Swami Vivekananda * Central University of Jharkhand, India; Page 2 …

Foundations of yoga psychology

KR Rao - 2017 - Springer
97 days ago -  … tation. Mr. H. Dukhan from Trinidad joined our team at Andhra University. He was able to have the cooperation of an Ashram in Pondicherry (not the Sri Aurobindo Ashram) and tested meditators before and after meditation. He …

Why is Neo-Vedanta Universal

P Vijayarangam - Research Journal of Humanities and Social …, 2017 -
116 days ago -  … It was 'Neo-Vedanta'. German Indologist, Paul Hacker, also used this term to refer to the writings of religious thinkers and writers within this new framework with definite orientation towards Vedantic principles especially of Swami Vivekananda and Sri Aurobindo. KEYWORDS …


A Saini -
99 days ago - Sri Aurobindo (1872-1950), the great educationist of India, has set forth his philosophy in the life Divine. He bases his philosophy on the original Vedanta of the Upanishadas. Sri Aurobindo believes that earlier Vedanta represent and integral or

[BOOK] Introduction to Sri Aurobindo's Philosophy

NN Londhe -
120 days ago - Sri Aurobindo was a great modern philosopher who made an unprecedented remarkable contribution to the Indian philosophical thought with his concept of Supermind. His thoughts originated from his spiritual sadhna he did for forty long years at Pondicherry at

[BOOK] Sri Aurobindo's Integral and Supramental Yoga in Savitri

NN Londhe -
120 days ago - Sri Aurobindo was a yogi of very high order. The yoga he practiced was the Integral Yoga and Supramental Yoga which aim at divinizing both the individual and the universe at large. He attempted to encode his yogic vision in Savitri. Therefore, his epic

[BOOK] Sri Aurobindo's Poetic Theory

NN Londhe -
122 days ago - Though Sri Aurobindo was a born poet, he elevated the act of poetic creation to the divine plane of consciousness through his spiritual sadhna for forty long years at Pondicherry. This is exactly in tune with the ancient practice of Vedic rishis who created their

[PDF] Was there sophisticated mathematics during Vedic Age?

AK DUTTA - An anthology of disparate thoughts at a popular level …, 2016 -
58 days ago -  … Savants like Swami Vivekananda and Sri Aurobindo have made brief but significant statements alluding to this rich legacy and it will be unfortunate if we continue to remain ignorant about it or, what is worse, choose to deny it …

[PDF] IN his Farewell Address to the students of the Bengal National College on 23 August 1907, Sri Aurobindo says: If you will study, study for her [the Mother's …

58 days ago - As one revisits the life of Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray, one is reminded of the above message of Sri Aurobindo. An intense love for the country and her people was the fountain spring from which flowed the various streams of the Acharya's activity. Indeed,

My disagreements with Charles Goodman continue with his contribution to Jake Davis's thought-provoking volume A Mirror Is For Reflection. (I've previously written about Jan Westerhoff's chapter in the same book.) Just like Westerhoff, Charles is exploring the important question of naturalizing karma. He does so with particular reference to Śāntideva. He opens with a beautiful reading of Śikṣā Samuccaya chapter 4's graphic descriptions of the punishments a wrongdoer will face in the hells, reading them in terms of the actions' psychological effects on the wrongdoer. The problem with this reading is that it doesn't go far enough. Amod Lele, December 10, 2017