January 18, 2013

Arya, Paul Richard, and First World War

The Arya was conceived as a joint venture of Sri Aurobindo and Paul Richard, a French national residing at Pondicherry, in the spring of 1914. Sri Aurobindo remarked on more than one occasion that, though he was not adverse to the idea, it was Richard who initially proposed the project of publishing a journal. 
Arya: A Philosophical Review was a 64-page monthly periodical written by Sri Aurobindo and published in India between 1914 and 1921. The majority of the material which initially appeared in the Arya was later edited and published in book-form as The Life DivineThe Synthesis of YogaThe Secret of the VedaThe Foundations of Indian Culture and The Ideal of Human Unity as well as a number of translations of Vedic literature. Sri Aurobindo: Works in "Arya" ... 5:51 pm 
The Prospectus of the Arya (French edition). [Please note that except where indicated the English translation is by the editors of Sri Aurobindo: Archives and Research. No copy of the English prospectus of Arya has survived.] English Translation “ARYA” OUR PROGRAMME.
The “ARYA” is a review of pure philosophy. The object which it has set before itself is twofold:– 1. A systematic study of the highest problems of existence; 2. The formation of a Synthesis of knowledge, harmonising the diverse religious traditions of humanity occidental as well as oriental. Its method will be that of a realism, at once rational and transcendental, — a realism consisting in the unification of intellectual and scientific discipline with those of intuitive experimentation. The Review will also serve as an organ for the various groups and societies founded on its inspiration.20 ... 8:05 pm 

The Religious, the Spiritual, and the Secular: Auroville and ... - Page 38 - Robert Neil Minor - 1999 - Preview - More editions Paul Richard proposed the publication of a philosophical magazine that could spread Aurobindo's message to the world, and on Aurobindo's forty-second birthday, August 15, 1914, the Richards published the first edition of the Arya.
A History of Indian Literature in English - Page 119 Arvind Krishna Mehrotra - 2003 - Preview - More editions In 1914 Aurobindo joined forces with Paul and Mirra Richard to publish Arya, 'a Review of pure philosophy'. The Richards were obliged to live outside India between 1915 and 1920, but Aurobindo continued to bring out the review si ...
Sri Aurobindo: A Contemporary Reader Sachidananda Mohanty - 2012 - Preview - More editions Paul Richard's role in the founding of the journal Arya is an important historical factor worth a mention. Quoted in Rishabchand (see Note 6 above), p. 383. 
Mira to Mother - Page 42 - Udhaya Kumar - 2004 - Preview Aurobindo, Mira and Paul Richard decided to publish a philosophical review in English and French. Arya, the English edition was planned to be published a thousand copies and Revue de la Gande Synthese, the French edition was planned...

World War I (WWI) was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918… In 1912 and 1913, the First Balkan War was fought between the Balkan League and the fracturing Ottoman Empire. The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian State while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. When Bulgaria attacked both Serbia and Greece on 16 June 1913, it lost most of Macedonia to Serbia and Greece and Southern Dobruja to Romania in the 33-day Second Balkan War, further destabilising the region.[24]
On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb student and member of Young Bosnia, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, Bosnia.[25] This began a month of diplomatic manoeuvring between Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France, and Britain called the July Crisis. Wanting to finally end Serbian interference in Bosnia, Austria-Hungary delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia, a series of ten demands intentionally made unacceptable, intending to provoke a war with Serbia.[26] When Serbia agreed to only eight of the ten demands, Austria-Hungary declared war on 28 July 1914. Strachan argues, "Whether an equivocal and early response by Serbia would have made any difference to Austria-Hungary's behaviour must be doubtful. Franz Ferdinand was not the sort of personality who commanded popularity, and his demise did not cast the empire into deepest mourning".[27]
The Russian Empire, unwilling to allow Austria–Hungary to eliminate its influence in the Balkans, and in support of its longtime Serb protégés, ordered a partial mobilisation one day later.[19] The German Empire mobilized on 30 July 1914, ready to apply the "Schlieffen Plan", which planned a quick, massive invasion of France to eliminate the French army, then to turn east against Russia. The French cabinet resisted military pressure to commence immediate mobilisation, and ordered its troops to withdraw 10 km from the border to avoid any incident. France only mobilized on the evening of 2 August, when Germany invaded Belgium and attacked French troops. Germany declared war on Russia on the same day.[28] The United Kingdom declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914, following an "unsatisfactory reply" to the British ultimatum that Belgium must be keptneutral.[29]
Opening hostilities: Confusion among the Central Powers
The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication. Germany had promised to support Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia, but interpretations of what this meant differed. Previously tested deployment plans had been replaced early in 1914, but the replacements had never been tested in exercises. Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia.[30] Germany, however, envisioned Austria-Hungary directing most of its troops against Russia, while Germany dealt with France. This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts.
On 9 September 1914, the Septemberprogramm, a possible plan that detailed Germany's specific war aims and the conditions that Germany sought to force on the Allied Powers, was outlined by German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg. It was never officially adopted… After the First Battle of the Marne (5–12 September 1914), both Entente and German forces began a series of outflanking manoeuvres, in the so-called "Race to the Sea".
Western Front (World War I) Initially the Germans were successful, particularly in the Battle of the Frontiers (14–24 August). By 12 September, the French, with assistance from the British forces, halted the German advance east of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne (5–12 September), and pushed the German forces back some 50 km. The last days of this battle signified the end of mobile warfare in the west.[10] … This army, led by general Paul von Hindenburg defeated Russia in a series of battles collectively known as the First Battle of Tannenberg (17 August – 2 September). But the failed Russian invasion, causing the fresh German troops to move to the east, allowed the tactical Allied victory at the First Battle of the Marne.
African theatre of World War I Some of the first clashes of the war involved British, French, and German colonial forces in Africa. On 7 August, French and British troops invaded the German protectorate of Togoland. On 10 August, German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa; sporadic and fierce fighting continued for the rest of the war.
Serbian Campaign (World War I) Austria invaded and fought the Serbian army at the Battle of Cer and Battle of Kolubara beginning on 12 August.
Asian and Pacific theatre of World War I New Zealand occupied German Samoa (later Western Samoa) on 30 August 1914. On 11 September, the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force landed on the island of Neu Pommern (later New Britain), which formed part of German New Guinea. On 28 October, the cruiser SMS Emden sunk the Russian cruiser Zhemchug in the Battle of Penang.
Balkans Campaign (World War I) For the first ten months of 1915, Austria-Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy. German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats, however, scored a coup by persuading Bulgaria to join the attack on Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian provinces of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia provided troops for Austria-Hungary, invading Serbia as well as fighting Russia and Italy. Montenegro allied itself with Serbia.[65]
Middle Eastern theatre of World War I The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in the war, the secret Ottoman-German Alliance having been signed in August 1914.[71] It threatened Russia's Caucasian territories and Britain's communications with India via the Suez Canal… Throughout 1915–17, the British Empire and France suffered more casualties than Germany, because of both the strategic and tactical stances chosen by the sides. 

No comments:

Post a comment